News: Reports of the 2005 SSM Survey (15 volumes) were published. [2008-03-10]
SSM (Social Stratification and Social Mobility) project has surveyed Japanese people's social status, social mobility, and consciousness on class and inequality,
with national representative random samples.
In 1955 the first survey was conducted by the
Japan Sociological Society.
After that basically similar surveys are repeated at intervals of ten years by temporary organizations of volunteer sociologists.
The 5th survey was conducted in 1995 by the 1995 SSM Research Group, supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research by Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture.
After the publication of
the final report of the survey
the 1995 SSM Research Group dissolved itself.
(Note that the SSM Survey Project does not enjoy organizational or financial support on a solid basis.)
Now the data collected through the SSM Surveys
are under the administration of 1995 SSM Kenkyuukai,
a small committee represented by Seiyama Kazuo (University of Tokyo).
Some sociologists have started to prepare for the 2005 SSM Survey.
- SRDQ System offers information on 1955-1995 SSM Survey data.
You can search questions and conduct some simple analyses on them [2004-04-05].
You can also download PDF reprints of some articles in 1995 SSM Research Series [2004-04-08].
- Raw data of the 1995 SSM Survey (A and B subsamples) are now available from
SSJ Data Archive.
1995 SSM Survey
| Former Suveys
| SSM Researchers
| About this page
SSM Occupational Classification
| Perl Scripts
Outline of the survey
The fifth survey, represented by Seiyama Kazuo (University of Tokyo),
was conducted from October to November 1995.
The sample was approximately 10,000 people aged 20-69 of the Japan electoral register.
The sample were divided into three subsamples.
For these subsamples, different questionnaires---A, B, and P---were used.
Questionnaire A and B were built with so a similar architecture that many questions overlapped between them, although they include some unique questions designed for the specific purpose of each questionnaire.
Questionnaire P is not similar to the other questionnaires, because it was designed for a special purpose.
- Questionnaire A: Including much of questions about occupational career
- Questionnaire B: Including much of questions about social consciousness
- Questionnaire P: Including questions to determining the occupational prestige scores for 56 occupations
For more details, see
the summary in SSJ Data Archive (Japanese only).
Some of websites of the members of 1995 SSM Research Group provide infomation on the 1995 SSM Survey.
Availability of the data
Raw data of subsamples A and B are now available from
SSJ Data Archive
(Survey Number 0260).
Note that the dataset of the subsample P is unavailable.
Publication by the 1995 SSM Research Group
Survey design, sampling scheme, questionnaires, and coding manual are contained in the following:
Questionnaires are also available from the following:
- 1995 nen SSM Tyousa Kenkyuukai [1995 SSM Research Group]. 1996. 1995 nen SSM Tyousa kôdo bukku.
On the sampling scheme and sampling errors:
Books based on the findings from the 1995 survey:
The final report of the 1995 survey:
Other books including results from the 1995 survey
- KIKKAWA Toru. 1998. Kaisou, kyouiku to syakai isiki no keisei: Syakai isiki ron no zikai.
>>Book review by HASHIMOTO Kenji (in Japanese, Journal of educational sociology, 64)
- HARA Junsuke + SEIYAMA Kazuo. 1999. Social stratification: Inequality in an affluent society. University of Tokyo Press.
>>Translation in Korean: ISBN 89-460-2973-0 (Hanul Publishing, 2002)
- YAMADA Masahiro. 1999. Parasaito singuru no zidai. Tikuma Syobou.
- HASHIMOTO Kenji. 1999
. Class structure in modern Japan : theory, method and quantitative analysis
- SATOU Tosiki. 2000. Hubyoudou syakai Nihon. Tyuuou Kouron Sinsya.
- KOSAKA Kenji. 2000. Syakaigaku ni okeru fomaru seori.
- HASHIMOTO Kenji. 2001
. Japan as class society. Aoki Syoten.
- KANOMATA Nobuo. 2001. Kikai to kekka no hubyoudou. Mineruva Syobou.
- YANO Masakazu. 2001. The design for a learning society. University of Tokyo Press.
- Editor= HARA Junsuke. 2002. Kouza syakaihendou 5: Ryuudouka to syakai kakusa. Mineruva Syobou.
- MURAO Yumiko. 2003. Roudou sizyou to zyenda: koyou roudou ni okeru danzyo hukouhei no kaisyou ni mukete Touyoukan Syuppansya.
Special articles in academic journals
- 2000. "The composition of stratification and class in contemporary Japan (I)".
International journal of sociology. 30(1): 3-87.
- 2000. "The composition of stratification and class in contemporary Japan (II)".
International journal of sociology. 30(2): 3-89.
- 2000. "Social stratification and social mobility".
International journal of Japanese sociology. 9.
Papers on the Web
Papers published by 1997 were listed on the last pages of
1995 SSM Research series, Vol.21,
based on self-reporting by the authors
[PDF version by SRDQ].
There is no exhaustive list on the papers since 1998, as far as I know.
You can view the outlines and the questionnaires for the 1955-1985 SSM Surveys at the
On the Web
Published reports, books, and papers
- 1998. "Social stratification in contemporary Japan".
International journal of sociology. 28(1): 3-108.
- Editor= Kenji Kosaka. 1994. Social stratification in contemporary Japan. Kegan Paul International.
- Hiroshi Ishida. 1993.
Social mobility in contemporary Japan: educational credentials, class and the labour market in a cross-national perspective.
Stanford University Press.
- 1992. "Perspectives on social stratification and social mobility".
Sociological theory and methods. 7(1): 1-65.
- 1990. Gendai Nihon no kaisou kouzou (4 volumes). University of Tokyo Press.
- IMADA Takatoshi. 1989. Syakai kaisou to seizi. University of Tokyo Press.
- Editor= NAOI Atsushi + HARA Junsuke + KOBAYASI Hazime. 1986.
Ridhingusu Nihon no syakaigaku 8: Syakai kaisou, syakai idou.
University of Tokyo Press.
- Editor= TOMINAGA Ken'ichi. 1979. Nihon no kaisou kouzou. University of Tokyo Press.
- YASUDA Saburo. 1971. Syakai idou no kenkyuu. University of Tokyo Press.
- Editor= ODAKA Kunio. 1958. Syokugyou to kaisou. Mainiti Sinbunsya.
(Ver. 4: 1997.6.2)
This tab-separated text file contains five fields:
This file is based on
SSM Classification of Industries and Occupations
(published by 1995 SSM Project).
A text file version of the book was converted with a
- Occupational category number (1995 version: see below)
- Classification into 8 categories (see below)
- Occupational prestige score (1975 version)
- Name of each category (Japanese: MS-Kanji=shift-JIS)
- An old version of SSM occupational category (1985) and its name (Japanese)
The classification into 8 categories is numbered as follows:
A period (.) means an invalid value (such as unemployment).
- clerical worker
- sales and service worker
- skilled manual worker
- semi-skilled manual worker
- unskilled manual worker
- aguliculture, forestry, and fishery
The occupational prestige score is based on a SPSS program written by
Murase Yoichi(Rikkyo University):
see below the token "__END__" in the perl script (revised 1997.06.02).
The last field, old version of the category,
is noted only if it is differ from the new version
(that is, if the category is divided or combined).
[Japanese version is here]
These scripts (for Jperl Ver.4) process data in two stages:
Besides the 1995 SSM Data, you can apply the script to any data of similar structure,
with some minor modifications.
- reads raw data (text file with fixed fields),
checks the data logically,
assigns missing values,
and write a binary data file.
- reads the binary file and analyzes.
- There is a example to calculate inter-firm mobility rate.
You can modify the "MAIN: for" loop and the "print" routine,
to make use of it for any aim.
The ssm95a0.pl script is incomplete.
Data Layout (below __END__) are not included.
Only the 1995 SSM Research Group members can get it.
(Please mail to Tanaka Sigeto.)
[Japanese version is here]
This page is written by Tanaka Sigeto,
who is one of the members of 1995 SSM Reasearch Group.
It is just a personal page, so never represents the other members nor whole the project.
Tohoku Univ. /
Faculty of Arts and Letters /
Applied Japanese Linguistics /